Fishes and sea Animals

Bestiary of the Cambridge University Library
Fishes and sea Animals Miniature. Bestiary of the Cambridge University Library. II, 4.26

The River of Paradise

Museum in Cluny
The River of Paradise. Capital. Late XI century. Museum in Cluny.

Crocodile

Crocodile /cocodrillus/ 10.1 X 9 cm The impressive miniature featuring a fantastic monster, all bristled up as if it is about to rend its prey, illustrates the text describing the crocodile reappearing in the bestiary, this time in the section on reptiles. The text is taken from Isidor /XII.VI.19—20/ who drew on the knowledge provided…

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The Crocodile

Bestiary of the Morgan Library in New York
The Crocodile Miniature. Bestiary of the Morgan Library in New York, № 81, f. 70

The Crocodile

Relief Church portal in Chadenac
The Crocodile. Relief Church portal in Chadenac. XII century.

The Crocodile

 Aquamanil. Lotharingia
The Crocodile. Aquamanil. Lotharingia. XII centery.

Dragon

Dragon /draco major/ 10.1X7.7 cm Dating back to Pliny /VIII.II.ll —13/ and Solinus /25.10—13/, the story of the dragon strangling the elephant had come all through the Middle Ages /Isidor, XII.IV.4—5; Pseudo Hugh, 11.24; Guillaume le Clerc, 2221—2238; Albert the Great, XXV.II.27; Brunetto Latini, I.V.142/. The text of the bestiary is close to the description…

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The Dragon

Dragon Miniature
The Dragon Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. III. N 1, f. 54 v.

The Dragon

Church in Blel
The Dragon Capital. Church in Blel. XII centery.

Basilisk, Scorpion

Basilisk /basiliscus/. Scorpion /scorpio/ 10.1 X5.8 cm 10.4X2.5 cm The text is borrowed from Isidor /XII.IV.6—9/ who drew on the information provided by Pliny /VIII.21.33; XXIX, 19/ and Solinus /27.51/. Basilisk is the derivative from the Greek word “basileus” /king/, which implies that it is the king of snakes. It is able to kill by…

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Basilisk. Scorpion

Basilisk
Basilisk. Scorpion Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. HI, N 1, f. 54

Basilisk

Chartre Cathedral. XII century
Basilisk. Scorpion Relief. Chartre Cathedral. XII century

Snakes

Snakes /anguis/ 10×2.6 cm The introductory text about snakes was borrowed from Isidor /XII.IV.1.—3/. They are called “anguis”, a modification of “angulosus” /bent/, “coluber” because a snake looks for a shade /colat umbras/ or “serpens” because it sneaks or creeps /serpit/ to an object. Snakes vary in shape and colour. The miniature pictures two intertwined…

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The Snake

Steps in Hypogeum. Poitiers. XIII century
The Snake Relief. Steps in Hypogeum. Poitiers. XIII century

The Snake

Museum in Colmar
The Snake Relief. Alspach. XII century. Museum in Colmar

Viper-echidna

Viper-echidna /vipera/ 10X5.7 cm Although the story of the viper-echidna is traced back to the tales of the original “Physiologus”, the bestiary mainly follows the description by Isidor /XII.IV. 10—11/, deriving the name from the word “vis” /force, violence/, as the birth of a viper is accompanied by violence /generatio viperarum/ /Matthew, 3:7/. The Greek…

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The Viper

The Medieval Bestiary
The Viper Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. Ill, N 1, f. 49 v.

The Viper

Church in Garchizy. XII century
The Viper Capital. Church in Garchizy. XII century

Asp

Asp /aspis/ 10.1X7.2 cm The borrowings from the text by Isidore /XII.IV.12/ are joined together in the bestiary with the story of the asp from the “Physiologus”, a development of what had been written about the asp in the chapter about the weasel, which later in the Latin versions grew into a separate chapter. In…

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The Asp

Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford.
The Asp. Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764 f.96

The Asp

Miniature. Manuscript
The Asp. Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. Ш, N 1, f. 42

Тhe Asp

Museum in Nevers
Тhe Asp. Relief. XII century. Museum in Nevers

Hydra

Hydra /hydrus/ 10X6.1 cm The text repeats the description by Isidor /XII.IV. 22—23/ and is close to the text of ff.l6v. and 17. The miniature pictures a crocodile swallowing a hydra, but the crocodile on the miniature largely differs from the fantastic bristled-up animal drawn on ff.75 and 16 v. where it is shown lying…

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The Hydra

Church in Moissac. XII century
The Hydra Relief. Church in Moissac. XII century

The Lizard

The Lizard Relief. Church in Saint-Denis. XII century Lizard /lacerta/ medallion 5.4 cm in diameter The text, which was borrowed from Isidor /XII. IV.34—35/, enumerates several kinds of lizards. Listed among them are salamandras, tritons and frogs. The early Latin versions of the “Physiologus” included the tale about the sunny lizard /saura/ in the chapter…

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Salamandra

Salamandra /salamandra/ height 7.7 cm, width at the bottom 9.1 cm, width at the top 7.6 cm The enigmatic salamandra, which does not burn in fire, is the most poisonous of all creatures. Its poison penetrates into growing fruits and contaminates water. Upon eating a fruit from a tree poisoned by the salamandra a man…

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The Salamandra

Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford.
The Salamandra Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764, f. 55

The Salamandra

Manuscript
The Salamandra Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. Ill, N 1, f. 53 v.

The Scitalis

Church portal in Chadenac. XII century
The Scitalis Relief. Church portal in Chadenac. XII century

Scitalis

Scitalis /scitalis/ 10.1 X5.2 cm The text of the bestiary and that of Pseudo-Hugh /11.43/ is a borrowing from Isidor /XII.IV.19/ who qouted Lukan /Pharsalia, IX, 717/ and repeated Solinus /27.29/. The scitalis is distinguished for the beauty of its spotty skin. It never follows its prey but waits until the prey, charmed by its…

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Amphisbaena

Amphisbaena /amphisbaena, amphivena/ medallion 5.7 cm in diameter The text is taken from Isidor /XII.IV.20/ who quoted Lucan /Pharsalia, IX.719/ and used the description by Pliny /VIII.23.35/. The amphisbaena has two heads: one where it belongs and the other in the tail-end. This enbles it to move in any direction without turning back. Its eyes…

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The Amphisbaena.

 Church Saint-Hilaire, Melle. XII century
The Amphisbaena Capital. Church Saint-Hilaire, Melle. XII century

Boa

The Medieval Bestiary
Boa /boa/ 10.1 X2 cm
The text about the boa was taken from Isidor /XII. IV.28/ drawing on the information provided by Pliny /VIII.14.I4/. The same text is adhered to by Pseudo-Hugh /111.45/ and Albert the Great /XXV. 11.14/. The boa habitates in Italy, it follows herds of cattle and feeds on cow milk.

Jaculus

The Medieval Bestiary
Jaculus /jaculus/ 10X1.8 cm
The text about the jaculus, the snake jumping down from a tree on animals passing by, was taken from Isidor /XII.IV.29/ who used the writings by Pliny /VIII.23.35/ and Aelian /VI.18/ and quoted Lucan /Pharsalia, 18.720/. It is repeated by Pseudo-Hugh /111.46/ and Albert the Great /XXV.II.32/.

Snake siren

Snake siren /sirena serpens/ 10×3 cm The text about the syren, the winged Arabian snake moving faster than a horse, was borrowed from Isidore /XII.IV.29/. Its venom is so strong that a man dies before he feels pain. The same story is repeated by Pseudo-Hugh /III.47/ and Albert the Great /XXV.II.51/. The painter of all…

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The Jaculus Relief

Column of cloister in Elne. XII century
The Jaculus Relief. Column of cloister in Elne. XII century

Hypnale

Hypnale /hypnalis/ 10.3X3.7 cm The text is taken from Isidor /XII.IV.13—14/. This snake is in the same species with the dipsa. A person bit by the hypnale falls asleep and then dies. This was how Cleopatra died. The hypnal is mentioned by Pseudo-Hugh /11.30/, Albert the Great /XXV.II.33/ and Philippe de Thatin in the section…

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The Seps Relief.

The Seps Relief. XII century Paris. The Louvre.
 Paris. The Louvre.

Stellio /stellio/ 10X2.2 cm

The text about the stellio-triton is taken from Isidore /XII.IV.38/. Its skin is covered with star-like spots. Its appearance alone gets the scorpion stunned. Referring to Pliny and Avicenna, Albert the Great /XXV.II.48/ says that the antidote for the stellio’s poison is the meat of a scorpion.

Chkalov monument. Nizhniy Novgorod.

Nizhniy Novgorod.

Russian autumn

autumn

The Kremlin. Nizhniy Novgorod.

Nizhniy Novgorod.

View of the Kremlin

N Novgorod

Coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod

Coat Nizhny Novgorod

River view

Volga

Nizhniy Novgorod. The Kremlin

Nizhniy Novgorod

Chkalov monument

Chkalov

Valery Chkalov

Chkalov

Reflection of sky in water

Volga River

Russian Birch

Birch

The Village Well

Well

The End of Summer on the Volga River.

The End of Summer

Gulls on the river

Gull
Gulls on the river Volga.