Moscow City Hall is tracking people’s movements based on their taxi and metro rides, as well as cellphone data and CCTV footage, a city official has told BBC Russia, in a scheme that has alarmed critics and drawn comparisons to China.

The city government has spent $8 million since 2015 on acquiring commuters’ location data from telecom providers. BBC Russia cited procurement data which places the price tag at 724 million rubles ($11.3 million) for 2015-2020.