Ensembles of New Dwelling Houses on Prospect Kdrla Mdrxa (Big Sampson Avenue) and on Prospect named after Engels.

The ten kilometre line of the Prospect Karla Marxa and the Prospect named after Engels runs towards the north, from the Pirogov Embankment of the Neva River, up to Poklonnaya Gord (Hill). These two main thoroughfares of the Vyfwrg District have changed beyond recognition during the years of Soviet power. Just a few brick factory…

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Great Ski-Jump in Kdvgolovo.

Kavgolovo is a picturesque village near Saint Petersburg. It is a favourite place for skiers who prefer thrilling descents down-hill and ski-jumps to unhurried sliding through the fields or woods. The Great Ski-Jump in Kavgolovo is the arena of the most important Russian and international competitions. A sports compound, including numerous skiing centres, a winter…

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The Bestiary, now preserved at the Saint Petersburg Public Library

The Bestiary, now preserved at the Saint Petersburg Public Library named after Saltykow-Chshedrm (LatQ.v.V.I) The manuscript, now preserved at the Saint Petersburg Public Library named after Saltykow-Chshedrin and registered „Lat. Q.v.V.I.”, is one of the English bestiaries of the end of the twelfth century. It contains 91 sheets of stiff vellum (The foliotation of the…

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Creation of Heaven and Earth

The Medieval Bestiary

Creation of Firmament

Creation of Firmament 9.6X8 cm
The Medieval Bestiary

Creation of the Firmament

The Bodleian Library. Oxford
Creation of the Firmament Miniature. The Bodleian Library. Oxford, ms. Ashmole 1511, f.5 v.

Creation of birds and fishes

The Medieval Bestiary
Creation of birds and fishes 9.5X7.8 cm
The miniatures illustrate the texts from Genesis on the third, fourth and fifth days of Creation. /1:9—13; 1:14—19; 1:20—23/.

Lion

Lion /leo/ 9.7X5.5 cm Initial »B« with the figure of the Creator 3.6X4 cm Put at the beginning of the treatise on animals, the only initial of the manuscript in which capital letters are generaley simple and in no way rivaling the colourful miniatures, is adorned with the figure of the Creator as if announcing…

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The Lion Miniature

Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford
The Lion Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. ms.Ashmole 1511, f. 10

The Lion Aquamani

Lower Saxony. XIII century. Hamburg Museum
The Lion Aquamanil. Lower Saxony. XIII century. Hamburg Museum

The Lion

Portal of the Church in Guilletre XII century
The Lion Column base. Portal of the Church in Guilletre XII century

Antalop

Antalop /antalops/ 9.4 х 6 cm The text on the antalop provides no clue for identifying it with the antelope we know. The text reproduces the narrative of “Physiologus” and is also given various intepretations in the writings by Pseudo-Hugh /II.2/, Pierre of Beau-vais /11.116/, Brunetto Latini /I.V.177/ and in the versed bestiaries of Philippe…

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The Antalop

Antalop
The Antalop Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL (The Saint Petersburg Public Library). Lat.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 48 v.

The Antalop

Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford,
The Antalop Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford, ms. Ashmole 1511, f. 14

Onocentaur

Onocentaur /onocentaurus/10X5.5 cm The onocentaur of the antique mythology was included in “Physiologus” due to the Greek translation of The Book of Isaiah, in which the prophet announced the destruction and fall of Babylon, on the ruins of which “wild beasts will lie down” /Isaiah 13:21 — 22/. Among them the Greek translation gives ovoxevTaupog…

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The Onocentaur

Onocentaur
The Onocentaur Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. Ill N 1, f. 39

The Onocentaur

Church Saint-Sernin. Toulouse. XIII century
The Onocentaur Marble relief. Church Saint-Sernin. Toulouse. XIII century

Hedgehog

Hedgehog /herinacius, ericius, echinus/ 9.3X3 cm According to Isaiah’s prophesy of the end of Babylon, the hedgehog is among the “unclean” animals /Isaiah 13:22, 34:1/. In “Physiologus” he is placed after the centaur. The text of the Saint Petersburg bestiary follows version “B” about the hedgehog “armed with spines” on which he sticks a bunch…

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The Hedgehog

The Hedgehog Miniature
The Hedgehog Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 53

The Fox

The Fox /vulpes/ Traditionally the fox is a symbol of cunning and guile. The text of the bestiary combines the description by Isidor /XII.2.29/ with the tale of “Physiologus”. The origin of the word “fox” /vulpis/ from “volubilis pedibus” /walking in circles”/ is borrowed from Isidor. The implication is that a fox makes those circuitous…

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The Fox

The Fox. Miniature
The Fox. Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL. Lat. Q.V.III. N 1. f. 51

Unicorn

Unicorn /unicornis, monoceros, rinoceros/ 9.8X6.6 cm “Unicorn is the best of all animals” says an old Russian song about the Dove’s Book. Indeed, the unicorn is most popular in the fantastic animal world; he has undergone all sorts of transformations during his legendary history. It is the most poetical image in the bestiary perceived by…

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The Unicorn Miniature

Bestiary of the British Museum Harley
The Unicorn Miniature. Bestiary of the British Museum Harley ms, f. 6 v.

The Unicorn

The Unicorn Miniature
The Unicorn Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 38 v.

Beaver

Beaver /castor, fiber/ 10×5.7 cm The story of the unfortunate beaver and his symbolic interpretation is in itself clear evidence of profound inner links between the naturalistic, the symbolic and the etymological elements in an animal as depicted in the bestiary. The story about the beaver is a combination of the text by Isidor with…

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The Beaver Miniature

The Beaver
The Beaver Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 52

The Beaver

The Beaver Miniature
The Beaver Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. Ill, N 1, f. 52

Hyena

Hyena /hyaena, hyena/ 10.5X7 cm In the Middle Ages the hyena feeding on carrion was believed to be the most repulsive creature of all. The Old Testament refers hyena to unclean animals /Lev.II, Deuteronomy, 14/. The image of the hyena hovers above the ruins of Babylon /Isaiah, 13:22, 24/, though there is no mention of…

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The Hyena

Manuscript
The Hyena. Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V.HI, N 1, f. 40

The Hyena

Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford
The Hyena. Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford, N 764, f. 15

Hydra

Hydra /hydrus, hydra/ 10X6.8 cm The bestiaries of the twelfth century and the text by Pseudo-Hugh (II.7) follow the story by Isidor /XII.IV.22, 23/ who continued the story in “Physiologus” about the unceasing hostility between the hydra and the crocodile living in the Nile. When the hydra saw the crocodile sleeping on the bank with…

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The Hydra

Miniature. Manuscript
The Hydra. Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 39 v.

Hydra

Hydra /hydrus, hydra/ 10×4.6 cm The second chapter about the hydra reproduces the text about the hydra of Lerne by Isidor and repeats the story about the hydra’s fight with the crocodile. Such repetitions are not infrequent in medieval compilation since the latter derived material from several different sources. The inclusion of the second chapter…

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The Hydra Capita

Church in Saint-Aignan. XII century.
The Hydra Capital. Church in Saint-Aignan. XII century.

The Hydra

Archaeological Museum. Nevers.
The Hydra Relief. XII century. Archaeological Museum. Nevers.

Sirens

Sirens /sirenes/ 10.1×7 cm “The sweet singing… of perilous sirens”, the fairy charms of which the ingenious Odysseys was lucky to escape, are viewed by the medieval mind as the incarnation of a worldly boon which is ruining human soul. In the course of their long, ages-old existence the treacherous and alluring sirens of the…

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The Sirens

Manuscript of the Bodleian Library. Oxford
The Sirens. Miniature. Manuscript of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764, f. 74 v.

The Sirens

Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford
The Sirens Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford, ms. Ashmol 1511, f. 65 v.

Wild Goat

Wild Goat /capra/ 10.2×6 cm Built according to the heraldic symmetry, the miniature illustrates the story of a wild goat who lives in the high mountains and sometimes comes down to the valley. She is known to be very sharp-sighted. The text of the bestiary originates from the description and interpretations of Greek “Physiologus”, in…

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The Wild Goal

Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford
The Wild Goal Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford, ms. Ashmole 1511, f. 20 v.

The Wild Goal

Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford.
The Wild Goal Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764, f.

Onager

Onager /onager/ 10X6 см The text of the bestiary about the onager combines two narratives of Greek “Physiologus”, the one about the onager castrating his young offsprings “for them not to multiply”, and the other about the onager and the monkey registering time. “Physiologus” compares the onager castrating his young ones with the Apostles preaching…

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The Onager

The Onager Miniature
The Onager Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. Ill, N 1, f. 40 v.

Apes

Apes /simia/ 10.2×6.2 cm In the Latin versions of “Physiologus” and in bestiaries the text about the ape follows the story of the onager. The story presented in the bestiary is in fact a combination of passages from Isidor with the symbolic interpretation of “Physiologus”, though it does not associate the features of the monkey…

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The Ape

The Ape Miniature
The Ape Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 40 v.

The Ape

Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford
The Ape Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764, f. 17 v.

The Satyr and Callitrix

The Satyr and Callitrix Miniature
The Satyr and Callitrix Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764,f. 17 v.

Panther

Panther /panthera, pantera/ 10X6 cm Panther is the loveliest of all animals in the medieval bestiary. She is gentle and beautiful. “Physiologus” spares no colours describing its bright coat, which he compares to the many-coloured robes of Joseph and the queen in gold of Ophir /Psalms, 44:10/. In the bestiary the story taken from “Physiologus”…

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The Panther

Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford.
The Panther Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764, f. 7 v.