Russian President Vladimir Putin has approved a new energy security doctrine preaching self-reliance in the face of geopolitical isolation.

Russia has unrivaled energy resources and is the world’s top exporter of gas and its second-biggest of crude oil.


The new doctrine replaces the 2012 plan and takes into account threats to Russia’s energy security and the effects of economic sanctions slapped on the country after the annexation of Crimea in 2014.

Here are some of the problems identified in the new doctrine:

— Sanctions restricting Russian energy companies’ access to modern technology, long-term funding and joint projects pose an economic and political threat.

— International climate policies and accelerating transitions to green economies pose foreign policy challenges.