Here, in the vicinity of the Chornaya Rechka (the Black Brook), on January 27, 1837, A. S. Pushkin fought a duel with D’Anthes. The mortally wounded poet was brought by his friends lo his last residence (Naberezhnaya Reki Moiki 12; 12, Moika Embankment). On the centenary of the poet’s death a simple obelisk was set…Details
These new houses were erected near the Primorsky Prospect mostly after the war by the architects O. I. Guryev, V. M. Fromzel, P. V. Kurochkin and others; they gave the region of the Old Village and the New Village the air of a picturesque, leafy little town. The small two- and three-storey buildings are finished…Details
D. K. Chernov, the physicist N. G. Yegorov and the ship-builder A. N. Krylov were among the founders of this great polytechnical college. The ensemble of the institute buildings was erected in 1901 according to the design submitted by the architect E. F. Vfrrich. The more politically advanced students and the progressive-minded teachers of the…Details
This is one of the best cycling tracks in the country. It was built near Poklonnaya Gord (Hill) in 1954—1956 by the architects L. M. Khidekel, N. N. Stepanov and I. V. Pokhitonova. The hilly country around the Track is cut by ravines and interspersed with groves; its beauty is enhanced by a chain of…Details
Kavgolovo is a picturesque village near Saint Petersburg. It is a favourite place for skiers who prefer thrilling descents down-hill and ski-jumps to unhurried sliding through the fields or woods. The Great Ski-Jump in Kavgolovo is the arena of the most important Russian and international competitions. A sports compound, including numerous skiing centres, a winter…Details
The Bestiary, now preserved at the Saint Petersburg Public Library named after Saltykow-Chshedrm (LatQ.v.V.I) The manuscript, now preserved at the Saint Petersburg Public Library named after Saltykow-Chshedrin and registered „Lat. Q.v.V.I.”, is one of the English bestiaries of the end of the twelfth century. It contains 91 sheets of stiff vellum (The foliotation of the…Details
Judging by its contents, the number of chapters and by their 59 order, the Saint Petersburg Bestiary belongs to the transitional type of treatises on animals between “Physiologus” and the bestiaries of the thirteenth century. The manuscripts of the transitional group (The following books make up the group of transitional manuscripts: 1) ms. 81, Morgan…Details
Creation of Firmament 9.6X8 cm
Creation of the Firmament Miniature. The Bodleian Library. Oxford, ms. Ashmole 1511, f.5 v.
Creation of Eve 9.5X8.2 cm The miniature is accompanied by a text from Genesis on the creation of Man, his being placed in the Garden of Eden, on the denomination of animals and the creation of Eve /Genesis II/. With a very few exceptions (e.g. “pleni” instead of “perfecti”) the text of the manuscript coincides…Details
Adam gives the names to animals 9.3×13.5 cm The miniature is followed by the text about the denomination of animals and then by their classification derived from “Etimologiae” of Isidor de Seville /XII.I. 1 — 8; XII.VII. 1 — 9/. The text ends with a sermon “Quocienscumque peccator…”. In the scence of animals’ denomination the…Details
Lion /leo/ 9.7X5.5 cm Initial »B« with the figure of the Creator 3.6X4 cm Put at the beginning of the treatise on animals, the only initial of the manuscript in which capital letters are generaley simple and in no way rivaling the colourful miniatures, is adorned with the figure of the Creator as if announcing…Details
The Lion Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. ms.Ashmole 1511, f. 10
The Lion Aquamanil. Lower Saxony. XIII century. Hamburg Museum
The Lion Column base. Portal of the Church in Guilletre XII century
Antalop /antalops/ 9.4 х 6 cm The text on the antalop provides no clue for identifying it with the antelope we know. The text reproduces the narrative of “Physiologus” and is also given various intepretations in the writings by Pseudo-Hugh /II.2/, Pierre of Beau-vais /11.116/, Brunetto Latini /I.V.177/ and in the versed bestiaries of Philippe…Details
The Antalop Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL (The Saint Petersburg Public Library). Lat.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 48 v.
The Antalop Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford, ms. Ashmole 1511, f. 14
Onocentaur /onocentaurus/10X5.5 cm The onocentaur of the antique mythology was included in “Physiologus” due to the Greek translation of The Book of Isaiah, in which the prophet announced the destruction and fall of Babylon, on the ruins of which “wild beasts will lie down” /Isaiah 13:21 — 22/. Among them the Greek translation gives ovoxevTaupog…Details
The Onocentaur Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. Ill N 1, f. 39
The Onocentaur Marble relief. Church Saint-Sernin. Toulouse. XIII century
Hedgehog /herinacius, ericius, echinus/ 9.3X3 cm According to Isaiah’s prophesy of the end of Babylon, the hedgehog is among the “unclean” animals /Isaiah 13:22, 34:1/. In “Physiologus” he is placed after the centaur. The text of the Saint Petersburg bestiary follows version “B” about the hedgehog “armed with spines” on which he sticks a bunch…Details
The Hedgehog Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 53
The Fox /vulpes/ Traditionally the fox is a symbol of cunning and guile. The text of the bestiary combines the description by Isidor /XII.2.29/ with the tale of “Physiologus”. The origin of the word “fox” /vulpis/ from “volubilis pedibus” /walking in circles”/ is borrowed from Isidor. The implication is that a fox makes those circuitous…Details
The Fox. Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL. Lat. Q.V.III. N 1. f. 51
Unicorn /unicornis, monoceros, rinoceros/ 9.8X6.6 cm “Unicorn is the best of all animals” says an old Russian song about the Dove’s Book. Indeed, the unicorn is most popular in the fantastic animal world; he has undergone all sorts of transformations during his legendary history. It is the most poetical image in the bestiary perceived by…Details
The Unicorn Miniature. Bestiary of the British Museum Harley ms, f. 6 v.
The Unicorn Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 38 v.
Beaver /castor, fiber/ 10×5.7 cm The story of the unfortunate beaver and his symbolic interpretation is in itself clear evidence of profound inner links between the naturalistic, the symbolic and the etymological elements in an animal as depicted in the bestiary. The story about the beaver is a combination of the text by Isidor with…Details
The Beaver Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 52
The Beaver Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. Ill, N 1, f. 52
Hyena /hyaena, hyena/ 10.5X7 cm In the Middle Ages the hyena feeding on carrion was believed to be the most repulsive creature of all. The Old Testament refers hyena to unclean animals /Lev.II, Deuteronomy, 14/. The image of the hyena hovers above the ruins of Babylon /Isaiah, 13:22, 24/, though there is no mention of…Details
The Hyena. Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V.HI, N 1, f. 40
The Hyena. Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford, N 764, f. 15
Hydra /hydrus, hydra/ 10X6.8 cm The bestiaries of the twelfth century and the text by Pseudo-Hugh (II.7) follow the story by Isidor /XII.IV.22, 23/ who continued the story in “Physiologus” about the unceasing hostility between the hydra and the crocodile living in the Nile. When the hydra saw the crocodile sleeping on the bank with…Details
The Hydra. Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 39 v.
Hydra /hydrus, hydra/ 10×4.6 cm The second chapter about the hydra reproduces the text about the hydra of Lerne by Isidor and repeats the story about the hydra’s fight with the crocodile. Such repetitions are not infrequent in medieval compilation since the latter derived material from several different sources. The inclusion of the second chapter…Details
The Hydra Capital. Church in Saint-Aignan. XII century.
The Hydra Relief. XII century. Archaeological Museum. Nevers.
Sirens /sirenes/ 10.1×7 cm “The sweet singing… of perilous sirens”, the fairy charms of which the ingenious Odysseys was lucky to escape, are viewed by the medieval mind as the incarnation of a worldly boon which is ruining human soul. In the course of their long, ages-old existence the treacherous and alluring sirens of the…Details
The Sirens. Miniature. Manuscript of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764, f. 74 v.
The Sirens Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford, ms. Ashmol 1511, f. 65 v.
Wild Goat /capra/ 10.2×6 cm Built according to the heraldic symmetry, the miniature illustrates the story of a wild goat who lives in the high mountains and sometimes comes down to the valley. She is known to be very sharp-sighted. The text of the bestiary originates from the description and interpretations of Greek “Physiologus”, in…Details
The Wild Goal Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford, ms. Ashmole 1511, f. 20 v.
The Wild Goal Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764, f.
Onager /onager/ 10X6 см The text of the bestiary about the onager combines two narratives of Greek “Physiologus”, the one about the onager castrating his young offsprings “for them not to multiply”, and the other about the onager and the monkey registering time. “Physiologus” compares the onager castrating his young ones with the Apostles preaching…Details
The Onager Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. Ill, N 1, f. 40 v.
Apes /simia/ 10.2×6.2 cm In the Latin versions of “Physiologus” and in bestiaries the text about the ape follows the story of the onager. The story presented in the bestiary is in fact a combination of passages from Isidor with the symbolic interpretation of “Physiologus”, though it does not associate the features of the monkey…Details
The Ape Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V.III, N 1, f. 40 v.
The Ape Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764, f. 17 v.
Satyr and Callitrix / satyr us et callitrix/ medallion 6.6 cm in diameter The text is taken from Isidore /XII.II.33/. Satyr is a monkey with a face showing unending change of expression. Callitrix is a bearded monkey with a thick tail, the one which, possibly, is shown in the miniature of the Saint Petersburg bestiary.…Details
The Satyr and Callitrix Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764,f. 17 v.
Panther /panthera, pantera/ 10X6 cm Panther is the loveliest of all animals in the medieval bestiary. She is gentle and beautiful. “Physiologus” spares no colours describing its bright coat, which he compares to the many-coloured robes of Joseph and the queen in gold of Ophir /Psalms, 44:10/. In the bestiary the story taken from “Physiologus”…Details
The Panther Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764, f. 7 v.
Elephant /elephas/ 10×6.8 cm In the bestiary the story of the elephant begins with the story by Isidor, who derived the meaning of the name from the Greek /mountain/. Isidor spoke about the great size of the animal, its great intellegence and good memory, its usefulness in battle and also about the enmity between the…Details
The Elephant Miniature. Bestiary of the Bodleian Library. Oxford. N 764, f. 12
The Elephant Miniature. Manuscript of the LPL.Lat.Q.V. Ill, N 1, f. 41
Wolf /lupus/ 10X5.5 cm The chapter about the wolf, missing in original “Physiologus”, is based on the information derived from Isidore /XII.II.23—24/, Pliny /VIII. 22.34/ and Solinus /2.36/ who described the wolf as a rapacious and greedy animal. The wolf has a big chest and strong jaws. He steals up to the sheepfold and catches…Details